Cell Structure and Function

This chapter begins with an outline of information. All living things are made of basic units of life. These units of life are known as cells. Some organisms are made up of one single cell and others are made of many different cells. Cells are units of structure and function. They come from pre-existing cells. They consist of an outer membrane, interior nucleus, and a cytoplasm mass around the nucleus. Figure 2.1 shows the structure of a typical animal cell. Functions of a cell are carried out by organelles. The membranes (cell and plasma) control the passage of materials into and out of the cell. A cell wall surrounds the plasma membrane. Figure 2-2 on page 318 shows the fluid mosaic model of a membrane. Definitions of the endoplasmic reticulum, rough endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, Golgi apparatus, mitochondria, lysosomes, flagella and cilia are found on page 318. All of these terms refer to the way a cell transports materials. The cytoskeleton is described on page 319, which provides cellular support and movement. The nucleus is located near the center of the cell. Surrounding the nucleus is the membrane. Pores allow materials to leave the nucleus. The genetic makeup of the cells is located in the chromosomes. On page 320 a comparison chart shows the difference between animal cells and plant cells. In plants and animals the cells are organized into tissues. Tissues have a specific job and are located in the organs. The movement in and out of the cells is described on page 320-321. Cellular respiration includes cell metabolism, anaerobic pathways, Krebs cycle, Electron Transport Chain, Oxidative Phosphorylation and Biosynthesis. On page 323 a chart summarizing key events in Aerobic Metabolism following Glycolysis per Glucose Molecule is shown. At the end of the chapter, three problem solving questions are presented along with a summarizing answer to the questions. The information regarding cells was very informative. All of the key terms were shown in bold print and the context was easy to understand.

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